Cricket From Beginning of its times and how it is played now
Cricket is a team sport played with a bat, ball and glove (receiver wicket-guard) played between two groups of eleven players each and is the second most-watched game globally. It was born in England, at least in its modern form, and is practised not only in the country where it was born, mainly in Commonwealth countries: Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking Caribbean (British West Indies).
The duration of matches can last from a few hours to several days. With the many intervals and complicated terminology, it is difficult to understand this sport to inexperienced viewers. In this sport, there are two variations, more and more limited unlimited. In the unlimited on a variant of the team must eliminate all opponents hitters twice to win the match, the duration of which is four days (national competition) or 5 (international competitions, such tests). Among the limited versions on the two most popular are the one in 50 overs (called An International Day or if you play by the national ODI), of a duration one day, and that more than twenty (Twenty20), Of a duration of about 3-4 hours.
History Of Cricket
The origins of cricket are unknown, but it seems certain that current games such as cricket were played in England in the South East as early as 1300, imported into the region by Flemish shepherds. The first mention of cricket in England is dated 1597; during a process, coroner John Derrick testified that the game played “cricket” when he intended to study at the Royal Grammar School in Guildford, Surrey, in 1550.
There are many theories about the origin of the name cricket. It could be derived from the Flemish word Krick stick, reflecting the cultural and economic exchanges between the southeast of England and Flanders. During 1600, several sources testify to the growth of the practice of this game in the southeast of England and at the end of the century are already registered the first games with organized teams. In 1700, the game grew to become the English national sport, and as such, it spread throughout the British colonial empire. In U.S. cricket, he represented the dominant sport until the Civil War. In 1900, cricket was part of the Olympic Games.
After the Second World War, cricket had a kind of globalization, with the granting of independence to the British dominions and the creation of the Commonwealth. Currently full members of the International Cricket Council ten countries: Asia is represented by four countries of the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka); Africa two (South Africa and Zimbabwe); Oceania by two others (Australia and New Zealand); Europe of England and finally America by a single (West Indies). Only in these ten countries playing Test cricket is the game in its original form, characterized by games that can last up to five days. However, in the last twenty years, due to the interest of Australian television two tycoon Kerry Packer, the first owner of Nine Network, then Rupert Murdoch, master of the satellite giant SKY, that cricket has found its international dimension: the requirements of television have contributed to the One International Day, a game with the same rules of the test, but with a limited number of overs per team (currently the number of overs is set at 50) and that, officially born in the sixties, he saw his first international (ODI) in 1971 between support Australia and England, and in 1975 was played the first Cricket World Cup.
In 2003, the English professional league adopted a version of the game called Twenty20, defined as well as each team has only one bat and can hit up to 20 overs. The world’s major leagues currently prefer this way of playing since the duration of the matches is reduced to about 3 hours; then, the television can be programmed in live shooting. Since 2007, a Twenty20 World Championship has been held.
THE SPIRIT OF THE GAME
“Cricket owes much of its uniqueness to the fact that it has to be played not only by its own rules but also by the spirit of the game. Any action that is considered contrary to this spirit causes injury to the game itself. The captains are responsible for ensuring that the game takes place in the spirit of fair play. Being together allows you to improve. »
This preamble precedes the list of The Laws of Cricket and the introduction of a short paragraph entitled The Spirit of the Game. They list the rules that normally in other sports are not “written”, he confided to the common sense of the players. These rules include, for example, in relation to the opponent, to umpires (referees) and the traditional values of the game; the prohibition of directing disrespectful or offensive words to a referee and opponents (it is even forbidden to move to an arbitrator at the aggressive stage); and above all the absolute condemnation of any act of violence between players.
A test match between South Africa and England took place in January 2005.
FORMS OF CRICKET
A cricket match must take place according to the laws of cricket (In some less prestigious forms is possible to make some slight variations). Still, it can be played in different forms, which differ between them essentially in the amount (one or two) and throughout the rounds (on a limited number of Overs or until eliminating the entire opposing team). Depending on the shape you choose, a game is classified into the following basic categories:
Cricket First Class: The category that contains in it the most prestigious forms of cricket. This category includes games with a life expectancy of three to five days, where teams have two innings and two hitting jets each (AC frequency) and consist of eleven players. In this form of innings, a game does not have a default duration. It can be completed only by eliminating the ten players from the hitting team (in theory, in reality, it can also end with a declared bat turn or the exhaustion of regulation time). The highest form of FC Cricket is undoubtedly Test cricket, currently played only by full members of the 10 National CricketCouncil.
Limited Overs Cricket: This category is characterized by bat turns ending after a predefined number of overs unless, of course, the entire opponent range will not be removed before this limit. The most important games in this category are collected in the subcategory called A Cricket List. The lighthouse is undoubtedly the Formula An International Day, characterized by each team having only one round over the maximum distance of 50 overs. The Cricket World Cup is maintained in this format. Another popular format and is appreciated Twenty20, but it is not on the A list.
The match is played between two teams of eleven elements. It is played on a grass field with an oval or rectangular shape, and by the unspecified size (usually all available space), delimited by a coloured rope resting on the thick ground called the boundary. In the centre of the lawn, there is a lane in which the grass is very short shaved, twenty meters long and three wide, called pitch, which represents the launch area, at both ends of which are placed three poles that form the gates. Each part of the game(bat turns) are engaged in the eleven players who throw the ball and defend the field (Fielding) and two bat opponents who, once removed, is replaced by a teammate until the elimination of the tenth batsman. In one bat turn and the other, teams change their roles.
The goal of the game is to put many points as a possible sign and not to be deleted when it is at a stop. The points are called runs, and the mark is running between the two extremes not. To mark a run, the server must, after hitting the ball, run to the opposite side of the launch not, while at the same time his partner who did not execute the stop and is located on the opposite side of the field will unfold towards the striking line (the fold of cotton wool in sheet). Both runners(runners, name that takes the dough when running the race) must touch the ground beyond popping fold (the line that marks one end of the field) with the bat. Each time the basic exchange of batsman is awarded a point. If the shot was particularly difficult for the opposing team to recover, the two riders could also try to trade again, scoring many rides as many times as they can change places. There is no maximum number of races in a single joke ADOPTED (although it is rare to see more than three, which normally happens in case of an error). It should be remembered that in the case of players on the field who can kick the ball at the wicket before the dough can finish the race, they will be eliminated. If the ball is not recovered from field players, The team throwing and reaching the limit (Which delimits the field) are automatically awarded 4 points, in the event that exceeding it without touching the ground points becomes 6 (in both cases are not worth all the shots made before the ball is out of the field, unless the ball does not reach the limit on a bad restart). Each point scored by a batsman contributing to the team’s final score. This score also includes a number of extra points(Extra-runs)that are accredited without any beatings in case of sanctions or special situations of the game.
On the other hand, the pitcher and outfielders must try to score as little as possible and eliminate as quickly as possible ten opponent hitters to conclude the innings. Rounds can also be concluded for declaration, exhaustion of playing time and limited Overs matches to reach the established overs limits.
A paste can be disposed of in the following way:
- taken for the theft of the ball (in English taken);
- if the ball hits the gate while one of the two batsmen attempts a run and is outside the fold);
- if the launch the strike gates (In English played balls);
- when the ball hits a part of the body of the dough instead of the bat, thus preventing the ball from hitting the small door (in English Leg before wicket or IPN);
- if, during the launch of his striking line in the absence of the ball and the wicketkeeper with it affects the gate (Stumped);
- if the hitter hits the gate with a part of his body or equipment during the launch (hit wicket);
- if it blocks a ball thrown towards the wicket and is outside the fold (obstructing the field);
- If he plays the ball with his hand;
- if he hits the ball with the bat twice (except in the case where the second time was to prevent the ball from turning on the wicket);
- if the batsman withdraws;
- if it does not occur in a stop within a specified period;
Once the rounds are over, the two teams are reversed; the team that had beaten goes to the launch and the launch strikes against. The team that hits the last bat turns against the reception of a target is a goal of tracks to reach (which corresponds to the difference in travel between the two teams has increased by 1). When the target is reached, the game ends immediately.
It isIt is necessary to score more points and eliminate all opponents for each available round (except to win, the limited on cricket too, in which it is enough to score more points at the end of their rounds regardless of the number deletions). We often use the phrase delete all batters when in fact they are removed 10 to 11, this is because to score a run requires two hitters, so if a team ends up with only one batter is not able to score short, another consequence is that at the end of each inning there will always be at least one hitter not.
The launch phase is divided into “on” It’s a series of six legal free throws made by a player from one end of the field. In the end, the next one will be launched on the other extreme. The captain is the person responsible for launching players. They are chosen by the captain, with the limitation that the player can not throw on two consecutive (in addition, within the limit above cricket, a player can not throw more than 20% of the most available).
Cricket has the peculiarity that a game can end in four different ways, and the result of the match can be expressed in two ways. Here are the possible results and the forms in which they are transcribed:
The team’s victory in the last bat rounds was the launch: When the last bat turns end before the hitter manages to hit a target (The number of executions sufficient to overcome the first team to throw), the team that was in innings when it was launched is declared the winner to execute X, where X is the difference between the total of the winning team and the losing team. For example, if at the time of the last bat laps, the B team is in a stop against a disadvantage of 250 tracks receive a target of 251 races to win the game. If the entire range of team B is removed when you have ticked 225, then executes, the result of the game will be expressed by the words Team A wins by 25 runs.
The victory of a team that has played only one round of bat: In the particular case where the number of tracks marked only in the first stick innings is greater than the total number of points scored by the opponents in two rounds, the winning team will be awarded a victory for innings and executes X. Suppose that the team leaf is wadding in the first rounds of bat terms with only 150 marked tracks and team B with 400 tracks answers. Team A at that time will be obliged to margarine at least 250, in case of accidental margarine, for example, only 150 there will be the second rounds of batting for team B as useless because the number of points scored in a single round of bat it is already enough to win the game. In this case, the term will be Team B wins by one round of bat and 100 races.
The team’s victory in the final rounds of the bat was beaten. When the last rounds of the bat, the stick manages to reach a target, then the game ends immediately and do not continue playing until the elimination of the entire range, and assign you the victory gates X, where X is the number of gates still available, or hitters not removed. For example, if at the time of the last bat laps, the B team is in a stop against a disadvantage of 250 tracks receive a target of 251 races to win the game. If Team B hits the target after losing only six hitters in 10 (4 still available,) the game’s result will be expressed by the words Team B wins by four gates.
Draw (draw): If at the end of the last day of play the stick failed to reach the target, but at the same time, the pitching of the team was not able to eliminate the whole range that you have a draw, or draw. This result is possible only in the games of Cricket First Class and not in those of Limited Overs Cricket because in the limited on cricket not to remove the whole range to finish a round of bat.
Tie (perfect balance): In cricket, it is possible that the last round of bat is concluded (in Cricket First Class only by the removal of the last hitter and not the exhaustion of playing time while in Limited Overs Cricket is also sufficient to obtain the predetermined proportion of postponements) when the total number of tracks of the two teams is exactly the same (i.e., a target lower point ). This event is rare in limited Overs, but it is very rare, even in first class. In particular, Test cricket It has happened only twice in more than 2000 test match.
Has an international day at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between Australia and India. The touts are dressed in yellow, while the commissioning side is dressed in blue.
The dough is placed on the stop line (in English, a fold of cotton wool in sheet)While waiting for the launch of the ball. There are several techniques to hit the ball, depending on the type and direction of the launch. Depending on the team’s strategy and the type of launch received, the server may decide to make a defensive move (which has its main objective not to be deleted) or an aggressive shot that aims to score as many runs as possible. Some of the most common shots are as follows:
Defensive stroke, to defend on long balls as the earth near the foot of the hitters
Defensive backwards, to defend short free throws as the land away from the batter, then return to his torso
leave, remove the bat from a projection where the batsman feels too risky to play a shot cut, an attacking shot for short launches on the open side of the batsman walk, an attacking shot for a long time throws on the open side of the batsman Pull/hook, attack shots for short launches on the closed side of the batsman Leg preview, a shot for a long time throws on the closed side of the batsman big shot, a shot in which the dough tries to hit with all its strength to send the ball as much as possible. Very common in cricket for more limited, it is rare in pure cricket to try beaters rather risky.
The batsmen on the field in order(order of hitters)Decided by the captain of the team; the first two hitters who took the field were two so-called specialists open. In general, the first positions are the best elements in support of the team, since in this way will have more time available. At the bottom of the order, the wicketkeeper and pitchers were usually less skilful at this point (qualified players both jokingly that the launch is called all Rounders).
However, this order can be changed for strategic reasons at any time during the game (provided that eliminated players cannot return to clay).
The bowler is the one who throws the ball to the batsmen, using what is called “action bowling.” Each cricket match is divided into ‘plus’ (the equivalent of 6 legal launches, from which they are excluded one,y ‘wide’ and ‘non-ball). For each on the captain chooses, attacking bowler who will bowl the first attacking over; once he is done of these six times bowling, the team will necessarily have to choose another bowler for the next ‘over. The number of more than one player can bowl unlimited in test match games and limited to 20% of the total in the forms of the game with a certain number of overs (Despite the impossibility, valid in all forms of the game, to run for two on consecutive). The pitcher usually throws the ball to bounce before reaching the batsman (if the ball were to bounce more than twice, the throw would be illegal). The launcher must perform the launch of the rear foot inside an area delimited by fold, and the other is not on the line; otherwise, the launch is declared not-ball. The ball must also follow a trajectory that makes the game possible to put it in the dough; if it does not throw is declared wide (Wide). The main objective of the launcher is to eliminate the dough and grant as few shots as possible. However, in the form of a game with a limited number of overs (such as Twenty20), limiting the number of moves given to the dough is sometimes more important than eliminating it.
Jugs are divided mainly into two categories:
fast melon hats (using speed as the main element of their launches)
Rotation launchers (which use the ability to vary the movement of the ball in contact with the ground by giving it an effect).
Normally, fast melon hats are more effective with a new ball (which tends to bounce more and have more movement in the air), while spinners usually come into play consumed with balls (and therefore with a better grip on the hand that is on the field).
In addition, fast launchers are divided by the casting speed: fast (145+ km / h), Fast-medium (137-144 km / h), medium-fast (130-136 km / h), Medium (110-129 km / h). Below these speeds, without taking into account part-time jugs, we enter the category of spinners (Which usually work at about 90 km / h).
Another subdivision of launchers is based on the type of main change that tends to give launches.
Fast pitchers are broken down by the majority Of Seam Quilleurs (Which tend to rely on-seam, the present protrusion on a cricket ball, which, in contact with the ground, can lead to unexpected deviations in the trajectory of the ball) and Bowlers Swing (Which, thanks to the difference in turbulence produced by both sides of the ball are able to deflect the latter while it is still in flight). Not too common, but still worth mentioning is the category of Bowlers express (We focus on pure speed, even reaching 160 km/h).
Slow pitchers are divided into finger/off-spinners and wrist/leg spinners, depending on whether the use of fingers or wrist to confer lateral rotation of the ball: a finger spinner to the right, the ball will tend to deviate to the right once touched the ground, while for a wrist spinner the gap will be to the left (with the exception of special variations). It is obvious that in the case of left-handed pitchers, the direction of rotation is reversed.
Strategic, a peace hat melon try to beat the batsman with the greatest number of timed shots less easily playable(line and length)And with small variations, while a spinner will aim to lure the batsman into a fake played, deceive him with unexpected behaviour of the ball or with very marked deviations from the trajectory.
Cricket possible positions The voltigeur against a right knocker
The main task of The fielder is to recover the balls of jokes and thus limit as much as possible the number of races engaged, as well as to eliminate the touts when there is the possibility of making a catch on the fly or runout. They are arranged on the field according to what is the tactical team to ensure the recovery and the subsequent return of the ball in the step takes place in the shortest possible time.
The wicketkeeper is an outfielder. It is specialized in the stand behind gates batsman during the match. Their main tasks are to stop any ball going on the dough, if they missed the (otherwise it could leak, which carries the batsmen to mark some easy tracks that are marked as a goodbye)That they touched the (catch on the fly touched the ball hitter, called taken behind, It is one of the most common ways to eliminate a dough).
In addition, given its location just behind the dough, the wicketkeeper is one of the most important players of the team, being in the best position to realize the conditions of step and preferences of the batsmen; it is not uncommon for captains to seek advice at their guard counter regarding the tactical approach.
Due to their hard work, the wicketkeepers are the only players to wear either special leg and head protections or special gloves to protect their hands.
Other roles Such as Captain
The same subject in detail: Captain (locust).
The skill to decide the captain’s strategy is crucial to the success of the team. He is entitled to a lot of important decisions, such as the list and order of clay players, deployment and tactics The outfielder on the field as a pitcher must play the ball, etc. The captain is also responsible for his players, so do not contravene Spirit of the Game and The Laws of Cricket.
In the case of a knocker, still able to beat, however, both injured and unable to lead a race, You can ask to be replaced in the race by a runner. The player who plays the role of runner for the dough, he is usually a member of the team who has already beaten in this ‘bat turn. The runner You will have to wear all the protections brought by the batsman who replaces in the races, including the bat. Of course, the dough will be the beneficiary of any penalties he may incur for his runner, including eventual elimination.
In all forms of cricket, if a player is injured or becomes unavailable during the match, it is possible to play a substitute in his place, although this cannot throw, hit, or act as captain or wicketkeeper. In this case, the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the forward player is unavailable, is ready to return to the field. To avoid abuse in the replacement, however, the MCC has determined that, except in the case of particular injuries, a player who returns to the field cannot execute a certain number of sur equal to the one which was replaced; In addition, if a player were to be on the field for less than half on Overall, will not stumble until the fall of the fifth wicket in his next round of bat.
The racket must be of a length not exceeding 96.5 cm, while the flat part, exclusively made of wood, must not exceed 10.8 cm in width. The flat part can also be covered with a protective or repair material, provided that this does not exceed 1.56 mm thick and made of a material that can not seriously damage the ball. According to the laws of cricket, is the glove that the batsman’s hand They are an integral part of the club, provided that they are in contact with.
There was no law that would put limits on the size of cricket bats until 1774, when a player claimed to play with a large bat-like the wicket.
The flask must have a weight between 155.9 g and 163 g and a circumference between 22.4 cm and 22.9 cm. However, these values change for “women’s cricket” and “junior”, where weight and circumference are slightly lower.
The same subject in detail: small door.
The two wickets are among the most important elements of cricket. They are arranged face to face on the two bowling folds (i.e. the two farthest ends of the step)And, more precisely, at a distance of 20.12 m from the other. A gate It consists of three wooden stumps (the vertical posts) inserted in a line in the ground for a total width of 22.86 cm and a height of 71 cm, on which both are placed leases (cross) also made of wood.
The field in cricket
Cricket matches are played in a field in circular or oval-shaped grass. There are no precise dimensions, but the diameter of this space usually varies between 137 m and 150 m (usually in the stages, a coarse rope resting on the ground delimits the perimeter of the field, which is said to be limit).
Despite the large size of the field, most of the actions of the game take place in a much smaller space said not.
It is a rectangular field area 3.05 m wide and 20.12 m long, limited at both ends by bowling folds and on the sides by two imaginary lines parallel to each other.
In the centre of the bowling, folds will then be insertedpallets (stumps)Which form the gates.
There are no other types of folds: the popping folds, parallel to bowling and placed in front of them at a distance of 1.22 m and considered to be of infinite length; the return of the folds, perpendicular to popping and placed 1.32 m from the imaginary line that cuts through the length not; Finally, there are the two folds of leaf cotton wool, on the same popping line and are their continuation to the step edge.
Cricket is a sport that generates a lot of statistical data; cricket’s marital status is different for pitchers, hitters, or outfielders.
For pitchers are recorded on the number of throws, the number of young girls (Plus where it is not granted even a race), the race granted and the number of deletions made(gates). These four data are often used to show the behaviour of a pitcher in a bat turn (for example, 18-2-107-1 means that the player threw over 18 years, in two of them do not leave everyone, he granted 107 and it took one wicket). In addition to these, a number are also entered extra throw(wide and no ball, otherwise present in the calculation of the total run granted), and the number of occasions when the pitcher managed to eliminate the five opponents in a round of bat or ten opponents during a game, as well as the best performance ever recorded (by a number of deletions) both for innings per game. From all these data are calculated the following averages:
bowling average (Launch average), the average run that gives the pitcher for each deletion made;
keel strike rate, the average of the launches that the player makes for each batsman on;
saving rate, the average of the series conceded per more launched.
For touts are usually recorded the number of bats turns they have gone to a stop, the number of launches treated legally, the number of points scored and how many times the dough has finished the rounds without being eliminated. Other very common data is the highest score ever scored in a bat turn (marked with an asterisk if the dough has not been eliminated) and the number of times the batsman has scored 100 points or more (in English Hundreds, centuries or tons). In addition to 100, it is often represented also 50(half centuries), or how many times the player has scored a race number between 50 and 99. For touts, these averages are calculated:
Average batting, the average run of players’ scores between elimination and the other, is obtained by dividing the total number of points scored by the player by the number of rounds in which he took part. However, the total number of rounds played must be subtracted from those where they did not stay or did not stay.;
Strike rate of hitters, the average of the points scored by hundreds of launches addressed. Like the emergency room for a bowler hat, the latter is a very important statistic in cricket for more limited.
The collection of data for the outfielder is less accurate compared to that for pitchers and hitters, since, unlike the latter, for what is marked each time a given game enters, the outfielder only a few particular actions are recorded:
catches (Caught on the fly), the number of times a fielder has eliminated an opponent by taking a ball hit on the fly;
deposit areas, the number of times an outfielder has been involved in an opponent’s runout;
stumpings, the number of stumpings performed by a gatekeeper;
Byes,the number of series produced by a roller not touched by a batsman and escaped the exit of the wicketkeeper. Not to be confused with goodbye legs or the race produced after involuntary contact with a part of the body of the dough, which is not counted as negative statistics against a wicketkeeper.
ICC member nations. In the full Orange “Members” countries where you playtest, wrote the “Associate Members” and in purple “Affiliate Members”.
The governing body of cricket is the International Cricket Council (ICC), established on 15 June 1909 from England, Australia and South Africa, from birth located in London, but moved to August 2005 in the United Arab Emirates in Dubai.
Over time these three founders joined seven other nations for a total of ten full “Members”. The national teams of these countries, where you playtest, are automatically qualified for the World Cup every four years. At present, there are thirty-four nations “Associate Members” and sixty nations “Affiliate Members”, for a total of one hundred and four countries where this sport is practised.